TABLES

 

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Table 1

rail revenue1

bus revenue2

bus costs3

profit

 

(£000)

(£000)

(£000)

(£000)

Tottenham-Woolwich

     46

    16.6

      39.1

    -22.5

Romford-Upminster

     30

    10.8

      22.9

     -12.1

Witham-Braintree

     43

    15.5

      39.1

     -23.6

Colchester-Sudbury

     26

     9.4

      23.8

     -14.4

Crouch Valley

     79

    28.4

      66.9

     -38.5

Liverpool St-Harwich

12315

4433.4

  4400.0

      33.4

Totals

12539

4514.1

  4591.8

    -77.7

1 “Better Use of Railways” pages 31,41,46, 51,57,63, these are 7 day figures

2 Rail Revenue less 64% (their planned reduction)

3 “Better Use of Railways” pages 38,4,49,55,61,119-120. As a minimum, their figures must be increased for  Saturdays: 20%, holiday/sickness relief 12%; Sundays:10% and for their “other staff”

 

Like its predecessors, Transwatch compares the whole railway system with only motorways and trunk roads. The DfT say there are no reliable statistics of freight volume on motorways either in terms of tonnes or tonne-km. The only data available is distance run on motorways by goods vehicles over 3.5 tonnes gross weight. Gross weight of a vehicle fully loaded by weight. Vehicles even well above this minimum do not compete with rail.

 

Table 2

2003

Vehicle miles on m-ways

Est 11.5 bn

Total vehicle miles – all roads

Est 28.5 bn

Tonnes carried all vehicles, all roads

Est 1.6  bn

 

The basis used exaggerates road freight tonne-miles/km. The DfT explained that if a vehicle starts with, say, 10 tonnes at A, unloads half at B after a mile, then picks up 2 tonnes, the tonnes conveyed are counted as 12 for the full journey! If the full length of the journey is, say 50 miles, 600 tonne-miles would be counted instead of 353! From this inaccurate base, an estimate of traffic on motorways is made by taking 40% of 1.6bn tonnes = 657m tonnes. Applying 40% to the estimated 152bn tonne-km on all roads, produces 60.8bn tonne-km on motorways. No statistician should accept it

 

The MoT said that, except in a few instances, it is prohibitive to convert redundant railways into roads (Hansard, 16.2.55, vol. 437, col. 47).When Lloyd made his presentation to the ICE, annual BTC Reports showed that over a third of route mileage was single, and a further 54% was double track:

 

Table 3

 

No. of tracks

Route miles

Single line

6,773

Double line

10,302

Triple line

448

Four or more lines

1,503

Total

19,026

Track miles

35,704

Average 

1.88

 

The DoT publication Railway Construction & Operation which sets out railway construction standards shows that track widths were too narrow for use as roads. Moreover, some rail routes were below prescribed widths for historical reasons. 

 

AGM G. Wilson of BR/Scottish Region, in an address to the University of Glasgow (BR Management Quarterly - No 11, February 1967) said that the design capacity of various categories of road, as stated in Road Research Laboratory reports were:

 

Table 4

passenger car units

heavy vehicles

2-lane single carriageway               

6,000

2,000

3-lane single carriageway

11,000

3,700

2-lane dual carriageway               

25,500

8,500

  3-lane motorway

37,500

12,500

 

The RRL Reports show that a 3-lane motorway capacity in 24 hours is 150,000 tons, assuming that heavy vehicles have a capacity of 12 tons, all fully loaded. The normal width of a 3-lane motorway is 130 feet, so that one mile of motorway will occupy 75,000 square yards of land. The capacity ton-mileage per square yard of land is 150/75 = 2.0 ton-miles per day. A four track railway is stated to have a capacity of 200m gross ton-miles pa, i.e. each track can carry 10 trains per hour, each of 600 gross tons, say 350 capacity tons. Four tracks in 24 hours have a capacity tonnage of 350,000. Such a line occupies a width of 80 feet; one mile will take up 50,000 square yards of land. Capacity ton-mileage is therefore, 335/50 = 6.7 ton-miles per day.

Comparative figures of other widths of rail and roadway are:

 

Table 5  (Freight tons)

 

 

Types of rail/road per sq yd of land

Tracks/lanes

Capacity per ton-mile

Rail

2-track

5.7

 

4-track

6.7

Road

2-lane single carriageway

0.9

 

3-lane single carriageway

1.3

 

2-lane dual carriageway

1.9

 

3-lane motorway

2.0

 

Turning to passenger transport, Mr. Wilson quoted an article in the Financial Times (17.10.66) which included the following figures relating to urban passenger systems:

 

Table 6  (Passenger seats)

Capacity (seats per hour

On one-lane/track

Equivalent (seats per

hour Per foot width)

cars on urban motorway

1800

150

buses with exclusive use of single lane

3600

300

suburban railway    

25000

2240

 

J.P. Weston of the Highway Economics Unit, MoT, stated in Developments in Railway Traffic Engineering, (page 62): ‘We have a problem in the roads sector of underutilisation’

 

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